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Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can affect different parts of your urinary tract, including your bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). Most UTIs can be easily treated with antibiotics.


Symptoms of a UTI include:

  • needing to pee suddenly or more often than usual
  • pain or a burning sensation when peeing
  • smelly or cloudy pee
  • blood in your pee
  • pain in your lower tummy
  • feeling tired and unwell
  • in older people, changes in behaviour such as severe confusion or agitation

See a GP if:

  • you're a man with symptoms of a UTI
  • you're pregnant and have symptoms of a UTI
  • your child has symptoms of a UTI
  • you're caring for someone elderly who may have a UTI
  • you have not had a UTI before
  • you have blood in your pee
  • your symptoms do not improve within a few days
  • your symptoms come back after treatment

If you have symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI), you can also get treatment from a sexual health clinic.

Find a sexual health clinic


Your doctor or nurse may prescribe antibiotics to treat a UTI.

Once you start treatment, the symptoms should start to clear up within 5 days in adults and 2 days in children.

It's important to finish the whole course of antibiotics, even if you start to feel better.

Some people with a severe UTI may be referred to hospital for treatment and tests. You may need to stay for a few days.

Hospital treatment is more likely for men and children with a UTI.

Treating recurring UTIs

If your UTI comes back any time after treatment, you'll usually be prescribed a longer course of antibiotics.

If you keep getting UTIs and regularly need treatment, your GP may give you a repeat prescription for antibiotics.


Mild urinary tract infections (UTIs) often pass within a few days. To help ease pain while your symptoms clear up:

  • take paracetamol – you can give children liquid paracetamol
  • place a hot water bottle on your tummy, back or between your thighs
  • rest and drink plenty of fluids – this helps your body to flush out the bacteria

It may also help to avoid having sex until you feel better.

You cannot pass a UTI on to your partner, but sex may be uncomfortable.


UTIs are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the urinary tract.

The bacteria enter through the tube that carries pee out of the body (urethra).

Women have a shorter urethra than men. This means bacteria are more likely to reach the bladder or kidneys and cause an infection.

Causes of UTIs include:


You cannot always prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs)

There are some things you can do to try to prevent a UTI.


Social care and support guide

If you:

  • need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability
  • care for someone regularly because they're ill, elderly or disabled, including family members

Our guide to care and support explains your options and where you can get support.