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Gout

Gout is a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe joint pain. See a GP for treatment to help during an attack and to stop further attacks.


See a GP if you have:

  • sudden severe pain in a joint – usually your big toe, but it can be in other joints in your feet, hands, wrists, elbows or knees
  • hot, swollen, red skin over the affected joint

These are symptoms of gout.

An attack of gout usually lasts 5 to 7 days, then gets better. It may not cause lasting damage to joints if you get treatment immediately.

Ask for an urgent GP appointment or call 111 if:

  • the pain is getting worse
  • you also have a very high temperature (you feel hot and shivery)
  • you also feel sick or cannot eat

These symptoms could mean you have an infection inside your joint and need urgent medical help.


The GP may ask about your diet and if you drink alcohol.

They may refer you to see a specialist (rheumatologist) and arrange a blood test and scan. Sometimes a thin needle is used to take a sample of fluid from inside the affected joint, to test it.

The blood test will find out how much of a chemical called uric acid there is in your blood.

Having too much uric acid in your blood can lead to crystals forming around your joints, which causes pain.


Attacks of gout are usually treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) like ibuprofen.

If the pain and swelling does not improve you may be given steroids as tablets or an injection.


Making lifestyle changes may mean you can stop or reduce further attacks.


The UK Gout Society has more detailed advice on diet for people living with gout (PDF, 879kb).


You might get an attack if you:

  • have an illness that causes a high temperature
  • drink too much alcohol or eat a very large, fatty meal
  • get dehydrated
  • injure a joint
  • take certain medicines

Get treatment immediately if you feel an attack starting.


Gout sometimes runs in families.

It's more common in men, especially as they get older.

You might have a higher chance of getting gout if you:

  • are overweight
  • drink alcohol
  • have been through the menopause
  • take medicines such as diuretics (water tablets), or medicines for high blood pressure (such as ACE inhibitors)
  • have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, kidney problems, osteoarthritis or diabetes
  • have had surgery or an injury

It's rare to get lots of attacks (chronic gout), but if you do, it can damage your joint.

Chronic gout can also cause tiny white lumps, called tophi, to appear under your skin, usually on your ears, fingers or elbows.

This is where urate crystals form under your skin. They can be painful.

You can get kidney stones if your uric acid levels are very high, so you'll need treatment to reduce the levels.


Social care and support guide

Read our guide to care and support if you:

  • need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability
  • care for someone regularly because they're ill, elderly or disabled (including family members)